Smart card is a technology that integrates data storage and processing logic on a single silicon chip measuring a few square millimetres. It’s far better than Magnetic-stripe cards, optical-storage (holographic) cards in all the fields scaling from reliability to security.
It involves a very high level of security based on cryptography and available to everyone, since it can safely store secret keys and execute cryptographic algorithms. Also, these cards are so small and easy to handle that they can be carried and used everywhere in everyday life with ease.
Smart Cards can be divided into following categories:
Memory cards:- These were the first smart cards used in large quantities. These smart cards have limited functionality. They offer high re-record-ability, power-free storage,and rugged environmental specifications.
Microprocessor cards:- These contain volatile memory and microprocessor components. The functionality of microprocessor cards is limited only by the available storage space and the capacity of the processor
Contactless cards:- Contactless cards, In These kind of cards energy and data are transferred without any electrical contact between the card and the terminal,These have achieved the status of commercial products in the last few years.Although contactless microprocessor cards can usually work at a distance of only a few centimeters from the terminal, contactless memory cards can be used up to a meter away from the terminal.
Dual-interface cards:- These cards combine contact and contactless interfaces in a single card.
Smart card can be loaded with data and used for various applications such as Healthcare, Insurance, Transportation, Transit payment system, Parking, e-Purse, Event ticketing, Retail, Enterprise, Banking and e-Governance. Smart card is secure, small and fit everybody pockets. Smart card eliminates paperwork and errors. When combined with biometrics, smart cards can provide two or three factor authentication
Smart cards can be used as Credit card, Travel card, Passport, Ration card, Voter ID card, Loyalty card, Access Control card, Identity card, and Public phone payment cards. Smart cards can also be used as electronic wallets, electronic tickets. Multiple applications can be installed in single smart card.
Smart card as health card, improves the security and privacy of patient information, provide the secure carrier for portable medical records, reduce health care fraud, support new processes for portable medical records, provide secure access to emergency medical information and provide the platform to implement other applications as needed by the health care organization.
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